Since entering the 21st century, people from the scientific, financial, and corporate circles, and governments from all over the world have deeply reflected on the development and utilization of energy by human society, which in turn triggered a revolutionary transformation in the energy industry. The abnormal climate and environmental damage have urged all sectors of society to pay unprecedented attention to the use of renewable energy. The large-scale access of new energy generation such as photovoltaics and wind power has prompted a fundamental restructuring of the existing power infrastructure. Customers' continuous pursuit of energy efficiency has led to the formation of a distributed integrated energy supply system, which has become an important unit in the power transmission and distribution structure. The pursuit of energy independence, environmental protection and other green and sustainable concepts are deeply rooted in the hearts of the people. All these new changes have caused the global energy system to face earth-shaking changes. Where to go, human society is faced with a historic choice.
The United States, China, and the European Union in the world’s major economies have recently issued intensive policies to encourage the development of diversified energy storage technologies and encourage longer-term energy storage services to cope with the energy revolution. In December 2020, Chinese President Xi Jinping called on mankind to need a self-revolution in the general debate of the 75th UN General Assembly, to accelerate the formation of green development methods and lifestyles, to build an ecological civilization and a beautiful earth, and urge all countries to follow the Paris Agreement, and announced China’s "3060 dual carbon target." In January 2020, the Secretary of Energy of the United States announced the "ENERGY STORGAGE GRAND CHALLENGE" plan to upgrade energy storage to a national strategy" to meet the needs of the domestic energy storage market in the United States by 2030 and encourage the development of energy storage technology. The goal of this project requires active action.” In the latest report provided by the International Energy Agency for the G20, it is also suggested that countries should reach a consensus on the challenges encountered in the energy transition, and electricity will become the main driver of the clean energy transition. The safe power supply of the power system becomes the basis of guarantee. To increase the flexibility of the power system and ensure the safe supply of power, more attention needs to be paid to the investment in the distributed power generation system, the maximum use of low-carbon power generation resources, the use of low-carbon fuels, and the provision of new technologies such as energy storage technology and digitalization that provide grid flexibility Market basis and investment protection. According to the International Energy Agency's expectation, energy storage technology and demand-side response technology will provide more than 50% of grid flexibility by 2050.
Energy storage technology has become an important technical support method for the energy revolution in the new era. Its existence can solve the intermittent challenges of photovoltaic, wind power and other new energy to the power transmission and distribution system, and can solve the problem of new energy generation and electricity consumption. The matching problem can also solve the economic problem of energy conversion losses. Therefore, we now see that short-time peak shaving and frequency modulation, long-term large-scale energy storage, integrated solar energy storage, and electrification of isolated island areas are all important scenarios for energy storage technology. And more and more new energy storage applications will become an important phenomenon in this energy revolution.